Metro Ticketing System using RFID Reader
This work suggests the use of RFID technology with Embedded system to provide an improved and efficient automated train ticketing system with RFID tag. An efficient utilization of RFID with Embedded System facilitate the smart ticketing in metro trains is proposed. This system explains the installation of RFID reader circuit in each and every train stations in metro rail to facilitate the calculation of ticket charges. Depending upon the distance(number of stations) travelled, the corresponding cost is automatically deducted from the user’s account. This task is implemented by using weigand technology which makes the transactions faster, easier and free of ambiguity. KEYWORDS: RFID Tag and Reader, Embedded system(8051 MC), Ticketing System.
Radio Frequency Identification (abbreviated as RFID) has been an emerging technology in recent years. RFID technology can be effectively employed in number of applications due to its penchant for efficiency. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify and track product, animal, or person by means of using RFID tags that are applied or incorporated on them. An RFID system consists of a tag, basically a microchip with an antenna and an interrogator or reader with an antenna. A fundamental system of RFID consists of two primary components: The reader circuit and tag. The RFID tag and the reader circuit set up communication via waves of electromagnetic nature.
II. RFID TAG
RFID tags are the components which are uses for the purpose of identification. The tag has a sequential arrangement of metal pins. The most significant feature of this, is the uniqueness exhibited by each of them. Depends on the power source applied to the tag and the maximum range, the tags are divided into: a) Active tag: An active tag has an internal battery circuit that supplies power to magnetize the tag. b) Passive tag: Passive tag is completely dependent on the reader for the required power. The major advantage of the use of this active tags is that these tags can broadcast the signals efficiently up to a distance of 100 feet whereas the latter is limited to a maximum distance of 200 feet. The tags can further be classified depending on the signal transmitted. The active tags transmit signals independent of the reader, whereas passive tags are completely dependent on the signal from the reader to transmit information.
In most RFID tags contain at least two parts.
i). First one is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a RF signal, and other specialized functions.
ii). Second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. The data is stored in RFID tags which respond to the reader by transforming the energy of radio frequency queries from the reader and sending back the information. A computer hosting a specific RFID application pilots the reader and it processes the data it sends.
Fig.1 RFID tag and reader communication
III. RFID READER
The unique digital data of the tag is decoded with the help of RFID reader. The RFID reader transmits an electromagnetic wave which is the input to the tag. The unique arrangement of metallic pins is energized due to these electromagnetic waves. It results in the production of a confined magnetic field. The confined magnetic field has an interference pattern which is again unique to each metallic arrangement of the tag. This interference pattern which when read by a RFID reader would produce the unique number assigned to the RFID tag and thus the address of the tag is obtained. It should be noted that the address defers from each RFID tag and hence it offers complete resistance to duplication. With respect to the concepts of RF Identification discussed above, the use of the same technology in the ticketing system would induce an enhanced transparency and offer a suitable platform for preventing any fraudulent practices.
IV. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
In this proposed methodology, Wiegand technology is used for the purspose of reading the RFID tag. This is interfaced with 8051 microcontroller. Wiegand Technology
The Wiegand interface is a de facto wiring standard which arose from the popularity of Wiegand effect card readers in the 1980s. It is commonly used to connect a card swipe mechanism to the rest of an access control system. The Wiegand interface uses three wires, one of which is a common ground and two of which are data transmission wires usually called DATA0 and DATA1, alternately labelled “D0” and “D1” or “Data Low” and “Data High”. When no data is being sent, both DATA0 and DATA1 are pulled up to the “high” voltage level usually +5 VDC. When a 0 is sent the DATA0 wire is pulled to a low voltage while the DATA1 wire stays at a high voltage. When a 1 is sent the DATA1 wire is pulled to a low voltage while DATA0 stays at a high voltage. The high signaling level of 5 VDC is used to accommodate long cable runs from card readers to the associated access control panel, typically located in a secure closet. Most card reader manufacturers publish a maximum cable run of 500 feet (150m). An advantage of the Wiegand signaling format is that it allows very long cable runs, far longer than other interface standards of its day allowed. The communications protocol used on a Wiegand interface is known as the Wiegand protocol. The original Wiegand format had one parity bit, 8 bits of facility code, 16 bits of ID code, and a trailing parity bit for a total of 26 bits. The first parity bit is calculated from the first 12 bits of the code and the trailing parity bit from the last 12 bits. However, many inconsistent implementations and extensions to the basic format exist. Many access control system manufacturers adopted Wiegand technology, but were unhappy with the limitations of only 8 bits for site codes (0-255) and 16 bits for card numbers (0-65535), so they designed their own formats with varying complexity of field numbers and lengths and parity checking.
Fig.2 Frame format of Wiegand technology
Fig.3 Sample Wiegand data stream
Passengers entering into the metro railway station, need to swipe the RFID tag to open the gate to entering into the concern platform. Once the tag is placed in front of the RFID reader circuit, the latter energizes the tag and reads the unique digital data stored it. Then the tag reveals relevant information to the reader circuit. The RFID reader will have the internal memory, which stores the information about the RFID tag and it also links it to the Common Database. The Display in the RFID reader will display the access granted or denial information. When the customer reaches the destination, they need to swipe the card to leave from the platform where the display gives destination reached. If the customer have low crossed the destination station, there may be a display about destination crossed.
The proposed model of ticketing system would reduce the complexity of the passengers. In this proposed system, the passengers need not to wait in the ticket counter to get the ticket. It saves the time for the passengers. By this system, we can reduce the fraudulent activities and accidents. Users need not manually enter the place of entry and destination. Instead of that, the user just place his unique RFID tag in front of the reader while entering and leaving the platform and corresponding fare is deducted from the user’s account and the door will opened.
The proposed ticketing system is presented in this paper, the operation would be fully automated, efficient, enhanced and cost-effective. The proposed system can also be implemented in other places like toll gates , bus ticketing and others. The efficiency of the RFID system, as mentioned in this paper, would make the implementation practical and effective.
VII. FUTURE SCOPE
In the propose methodology, the whole system is fully automated and reduces the complexity. The conventional system uses tickets made by paper. The RFID tag is comparable to a rice grain, hence the size of the tag can be yet reduced and hence can be easily portable within smallest space to hold it.
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Author- Megha Yadav S
Student, ISM UNIVERSITY,