ISM Univ – We uses machine for our purpose, now a days in every field we have machines and associated with machine operators. Human Operators role is to take care of process in the respective plant with the help of machines. So the concept of Man machine interaction is to improve the scope of machine and more readability from the machine to the operator to improve the efficiency of plant.
Interest in man-machine systems arose in the mid-20th century, when systems of various kinds became with increasing frequency the objects of technical planning and design. The effectiveness of these systems, which included those for the control of production, transportation, communications, and space flights, was largely determined by the activity of the human operators. The combination of human abilities and capabilities of a machine or complex of technological devices significantly increases the effectiveness of control. To bring the effective control and coordination with the machine, information from the machine need to bring forward. The information model is a representation, organized according to a definite system of rules, of the states of the object of labor or control, the man-machine system itself, the environment, and the procedures for acting upon these states. Physically speaking, information models are built using data display equipment. With an information model at hand, the operator uses his own knowledge and experience to formulate a conceptual model.
One of the key problems in constructing man-machine systems is the optimal distribution of functions between the operator and technological devices, that is, determining which operations must be performed by the operator and which by the machine to ensure the required effectiveness. There are two basic variations in the distribution of functions. In the first, the operator merely monitors the machine performing the task and confirms the result; in the second, the operator and machine must perform certain motions jointly. Here, a result cannot be obtained without joint operation. The first variation is a type of parallel organization of interaction between the operator and machine, while the second reflects a sequential, or stepwise, organization. In choosing one variation or the other, consideration must be given to methodological factors relating to the social function of man as the doer of labor and to the practical recommendations of management science, including recommendations on the organization of control at the higher levels of the system.
There are five basic classes of man-machine systems. In the first, the human operator is included in the technological process, to which he must constantly attend. He is guided in his work by instructions, which cover virtually all possible situations and solutions. Operators at transfer lines and operators who receive and transfer information are part of this type of man-machine system. In systems of the second class, operators monitor and control a process. Operators in radar systems and traffic controllers in transportation systems are part of these systems. The third class of man-machine systems requires the operator to issue commands to robots, manipulators, and machines that amplify human muscular energy. In systems of the fourth class, the operator acts as an investigator. Decipher clerks and computer operators are examples of operators in this class. In systems of the fifth class, the operator is called upon to make management decisions. Organizers, planners, and executives work with systems in this class. In the second, fourth, and fifth classes of systems, the operator can set up a dialogue with the machine. Here, the operator and machine alternate in performance of the task.
Study of man-machine systems can and must be carried out as an investigation of the functional whole. Treating the human being as a special component in a technical system makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of the system. This approach, however, is not without limitations; by treating man as a “black box,” both the social nature of labor and the role of man as the doer of labor are overlooked. The relation between man and machine is above all a relation between the doer of labor and the implement of labor.
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